9 Dec 2022

PAVE working paper 1:

Cumulative extremisms in the Balkans

This report summarises the PAVE project’s findings on cumulative extremism in the Western Balkans.


Sead Turčalo, Jelena Brkić-Šmigoc, Mirza Smajić, Veldin Kadić, Muamer Hirkić, Maja Halilovic Pastuovic, Goran Tepšić, Nemanja Džuverović, Gillian Wylie


Investigating the country cases Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, North Macedonia, and Serbia, the paper explores the interactive dynamics between different forms of extremist ideologies, often described by "reciprocal radicalisation" or "cumulative extremism" - an area that is still under-explored. The relationship between ideology and behaviour (tactics) varies. While not all extreme groups are violent, and not all violent groups are extreme, this report studies the linkages between ideology and violence.

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